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What is a Starknet network? Check how the second layer StarkNet network works

 StarkWare is a startup that seeks to improve scalability and privacy in Atrium Blockchain by designing second tier projects. One of the startup's projects is called the StarkNet network, which uses ZK-rollups technology to perform computations outside the main Atrium chain, in addition to increasing speed, reducing network congestion and costing Atrium. In this article from Homeland Blockchain, we look at what the StarNet network is, how it works, what services it provides, and then look at the roadmap, development team, partner projects, and StarNet investors.


What is a Starknet network? 

 StarkNet is a dual-layer network on the Atrium platform that uses Validity-Rollup technology known as ZK-Rollup. This Layer 2 chain enables decentralized applications to achieve the scalability created by the STARK cryptographic proof system while taking advantage of the security and decentralization of the Atrium network. Smart contracts and the Starknet operating system are written in Cairo to support the deployment and scalability of Dapps under that language. You can see the list of projects that work in StarKent platform at this link.

Startup StarkWare focuses on designing and optimizing three technologies; StarkNet, StarkEx and STARKs, which we will get to know later.

Both Stark X and StarkNet are scalability solutions based on the Stark algorithm. Both provide scalability, low cost, and security. But they have different implementation requirements and patterns. Stark X may be a good solution for an application that is largely standalone and compatible with the APIs provided by Stark X. StarkNet may be more appropriate for a protocol that requires interacting with other protocols at the same time.

Ultimately, StarkWare seeks to produce fast, trust-free, and integrated proving and design of powerful software stacks to perform and validate off-chain computations.

How does the StarkNet network work?

STARKs are a proof system that makes it possible to prove and validate calculations. This system processes large calculations and generates evidence to verify the calculations, and then validates the proof in several steps.

Stark technology plays a key role in blockchain scalability by enabling massive off-chain computing. Off-chain computing is cheaper and only performs on-chain (anchin) verification that requires minor computational power.

In other words, by performing a few steps on the chain, the verifier only confirms the large calculations performed outside the chain. Using STARKs, two-tier solutions come together to process thousands of transactions more quickly and then validate their proof with a Stark algorithm on the chain. As a result, Atrium and Gas will be less secure.

Lower transaction costs make it possible to build a new class of applications. These features make Starkes a great option for improving the user experience and reducing overhead costs, while also maintaining the security of the atrium layer.

Roll-outs are one of the newest atrium dual layer solutions. How they work in a concise way is that they collect several transactions and after compressing them, they put them in one block. Most ZK-Rollups are not really zero proof. This error is due to the confusion between the concept of proof of validity (guaranteeing the integrity of calculations) and proof with zero knowledge (ensuring non-disclosure of information).

Starks are defined as validity proofs, meaning that they prove the integrity of calculations. In a set of validity proofs that includes a stark, one party can prove to the other that a calculation has been performed correctly. But in proof with zero knowledge, the proof does not have to disclose any of the calculation information and only declares that the calculation was done correctly.


 StarkEx is a scalable engine designed to meet the specific needs of applications (such as defa or gaming). This second layer solution can be implemented in two modes: ZK-Rollup or Validium data availability. Every application that runs on the Stark X service platform follows its own logic. Volidium and zkrollup modes are not much different from each other. The only difference is that in the volume mode, the data is stored outside the chain. While in zkrollup mode the data is stored as such.

This system has an external component and a component on the chain. The external component or offchin has the status, executes the transactions and sends the status update to the anchin component. The Anchin component is also responsible for maintaining the status and assets of the system and transferring approval.

 StarkEx is a toolbox of application requirements that a project can use to achieve low-cost off-chain computing. A performance certificate is generated off-chain. Such proof can include 12,000 to 500,000 transactions depending on the type of transaction. This proof is then sent to the STARK Verifier to be placed on the chain. This means that one confirmation is sufficient for all transactions.

Applications based on StarkEx include dYdX (permanent contracts platform), Immutable and Sorare (fantasy football game), DeversiFi (spot trading platform) and Celer. Starkex currently supports ERC20 and ERC721 tokens and tokens.


Layer 2 network without the need for a license. Developers and users can use Cairo language to deploy smart contracts. Compared to Atrium Smart Contracts in the StarkNet ecosystem, your contracts can interact with other StarkNet-based contracts. These contracts can also interact with Atrium contracts by sending an asynchronous message.

Unlike StarkNet, where applications are responsible for registering transactions, StarkNet Sequencers classify transactions and send them for processing and proof.

Starknet has an unlicensed system, so all users, including Sequencers, Provers, Developers, and Users, can contribute to the network.

  •     Sequencers: Anyone can be a sequencer. That is, categorize transactions and suggest a new block.
  •     Provers: Anyone can also act as a proof-taker on the net to provide proof of approval for new blocks.
  •     Developers: Able to set up their own smart contracts.
  •     Ordinary users: People who trade on the network.

What services does Starkent provide?

In addition to Stark X and StarkNet, StarkWare also offers the following three products:

    Cairo: A platform for generating STARK proofs for general computing in Atrium. Cairo is also the language of computational programming for Starkex and Starknet. All decentralized protocols and applications in the context of the two use Cairo.
    SHARP: A system that allows the aggregation of programs under the Cairo language to provide proof, which is then placed on the Atrium network for approval by a Stark authenticator, reducing transaction costs.
    Video (VeeDo): VDF service or STARK-based verifiable delay function. The first program implemented in the video was to prove a concept for a random bacon chain.

Starknet project roadmap

The project software stack will be launched on Atrium's main network in June 2020 and will be used by projects such as dydx, Sorare, Immobile, DeverseiFi and Celer. The Starknet project roadmap is described in detail in several steps on the project's medium blog.
Introducing Starknet Development Team

StarkWare was launched in January 2018 by Eli Ben-Sasson, Uri Kolodny, Michael Riabzev and Alessandro Chiesa.

Ben Sassoon is a STARK inventor and former professor of computer science at Technion University and a researcher in Ziuksh. He is currently the President of StarkWare. He received his PhD in Computer Science from the University of Jerusalem.

Avery Colodney is the CEO of StarkWare. He received his bachelor's degree in computer science from the University of Jerusalem and his MBA from MIT. Prior to joining StarkWare, he worked as a co-founder and CEO at several software companies.

Michael Ryabzev is currently in charge of Starkover architectural design. He holds a degree in mathematics and computer science and a doctorate in computer science from Technion University.

Asandro Kiza is the company's head of research. He has a bachelor's and doctoral degree from MIT and is currently working as an assistant professor at EPFL Switzerland.

Meet StarkNet project investors

Starkware has received $ 111 million from venture capitalists (VCs) over three investment periods. It has also received $ 12 million in grants from the Atrium Foundation to help make the Atrium network scalable. Starkware investors include the following individuals, funds and institutions:

    Vitalik Butrin
    Founders Fund
    Intel Capital